The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

A Fresh Translation with Video Commentary. (ę William Gillies 2011)

 

Video

Book

Title

Sutra Number

Sutra Text

Sanskrit Transliteration

01

Introduction 1/2

Yoga

 

 

02

Introduction 2/2

The Dynamic of Yoga

 

 

03

I

1

Now, without hesitation, roar towards realisation!

atha yogā 'nuśāsanaṃ

04

I

Sutras 2-4

2

Enlightenment practice is when there is no sucking into the vortices of the mind/heart.

yogaś citta vṛtti nirodhaḥ

3

Then there is abiding in pure experiencing.

tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe 'vasthānaṃ

4

Otherwise there is identification with mental/emotional perturbations.

vṛtti sārūpyam itaratra

05

I

Sutras 5-11

5

The mental emotional perturbations are a five-storied edifice.  They can be painful or not.

vṛttayaḥ pa˝catayyaḥ kliṣṭā 'kliṣṭāḥ

6

They are cognition, misapprehension, imagination, sleep and memory.

pramāṇa viparyaya vikalpa nidrā smṛtayaḥ

06

I

Sutras 5-11

7

Cognition (consensus reality) is based on perception, inference and culture.

pratyakṣā 'numānā ' 'gamāḥ pramāṇāni

8

There is misapprehension of the fact not based on the evidence.

viparyayo mithyā-j˝ānam atad rūpa pratiṣṭhaṁ

07

I

Patanjaliĺs Ladder 1/3

9

This is fuelled by imagination and insubstantial arguments.

śabda j˝ānā 'nupātī vastu-śūnyo vikalpaḥ

08

I

Patanjaliĺs Ladder 2/3

10

It is now a dream reality completely independent of the original fact.

abhāva pratyayā 'laṁbanā vṛttir nidrā

09

I

Patanjaliĺs Ladder 3/3

11

Memory is used to reinforce the misapprehension.

anubhūta viṣayā 'saṁpramoṣaḥ smṛtiḥ

10

I

PRACTICE & DISPASSION 1/2

12

By such practice, dispassion in relation to memory (mood) is achieved.

abhyāsa vairāgyābhyāṁ tan nirodhaḥ

11

I

PRACTICE & DISPASSION 2/2

13

Choosing to practise at every moment will lead to abiding in stillness.

tatra sthitau yatno 'bhyāsaḥ

14

This becomes firmly grounded when cultivated wholeheartedly for a long time with enthusiasm and without interruption.

sa tu dīrgha kāla nairantarya satkārā ' 'sevito dṛḍhabhūmiḥ

15

Dispassion is the mastery of cognition whereby there is no addiction to objects or ideas.

dṛṣṭā 'nuśravika viṣaya vitṛṣṇasya vaśīkāra saṁj˝ā vairāgyaṁ

16

Realisation of the supreme Self brings freedom from fixating on cognitive discriminations.

tat paraṁ puruṣakhyāter guṇa vaitṛṣṇyaṁ

12

I

Sutras 17-20

17

This can be realised by self-enquiry, investigating the non-negativity which accompanies the sense of ĹIĺ.

vitarka vicārā ' 'nandā 'smitā 'nugamāt saṁpraj˝ātaḥ

13

I

 

18

Going deeper, beyond notional thinking (objectification), the underlying challenge of the psychological tendencies remains.

virāma pratyayā 'bhyāsa pūrvaḥ saṁskāra śeṣo 'nyaḥ

19

Even after going beyond identification with the body and the world, dualistic thinking can still have a hold.

bhava pratyayo videha prakṛtilayānāṁ

14

I

The Five Spiritual Faculties

20

This is pre-empted by the additional factors of faith, vigour, remembering, samadhi and wisdom.

śraddhā vīrya smṛti samādhi praj˝ᾱ pūrvaka itareṣāṁ

15

I

Doing & Surrender

 

 

 

16

I

Doing & Surrender

21

The Ĺcentre of gravityĺ  moves near.

tīvra saṁvegānām āsannaḥ

22

Hence there can be varying degrees: mild, average or intense.

mṛdu madhyā 'dhimātratvāt tato 'pi viśeṣaḥ

17

I

Doing & Surrender

23

Alternatively, give everything up to the Supreme Identity.

īśvara praṇidhānād vā

24

The Supreme Identity is the Unconditioned Self, untouched by the limitations  of behaviour patterns and their underlying motivations.

kleśa karma vipākā 'śayair aparāmṛṣṭaḥ puruṣa viśeṣa īśvaraḥ

18

I

Doing & Surrender

25

In that is the seed for all knowing.  There is nothing beyond it.

tatra niratiśayaṁ sarvaj˝a bījaṁ

26

Also, this Self is the foremost amongst gurus, eternally present.

sa eṣa pūrveṣām api guruḥ kālenā 'navacchedāt

19

I

Doing & Surrender

27

It is indicated by AUM.

tasya vācakaḥ praṇavaḥ

28

By reciting it, its significance becomes apparent.

taj japas tad artha bhāvanaṁ

29

In this way, the attention is turned to itself and, in addition, all hindrances are transcended.

tataḥ pratyak cetanā 'dhigamo 'py antarāyā 'bhāvaś ca

20

I

Losing the Way (The Hindrances)

30

The hindrances are: disease, apathy, doubt, negligence, sloth, self-indulgence, dependence on ideas, failing to obtain groundedness (in samadhi), wavering and a scattered mind.

vyādhi styāna saṁśaya pramādā 'lasyā 'virati bhrānti darśanā 'labdha bhūmikatvā 'navasthitatvāni citta vikṣepās te 'ntarāyāḥ

31

 A scattered mind is indicated by unease, depression, agitation of the body and irregular breathing.

duḥkha daurmanasyā 'ṅgam ejayatva śvāsa praśvāsā vikṣepa saha bhuvaḥ

32

The impact of these hindrances can be negated by focussing on what actually IS.

tat pratiṣedhārtham ekatattvā 'bhyāsaḥ

21

I

Focussed Tranquillity

Part 1 of 3

33

The mind becomes tranquil when there is friendliness, compassion, gladness, equanimity in regards to what is joyful, painful, worthy or unworthy.

maitrī karuṇā mudito 'pekṣāṇāṁ sukha duḥkha puṇyā 'puṇya viṣayāṇāṁ

bhāvanātaś citta prasādanaṁ

22

I

Focussed Tranquillity

Part 2 of 3

34

Or by expulsion and retention of the breath.

pracchardana vidhāraṇābhyāṁ vā prāṇasya

35

Or by focussing on a creative activity which engages the mind.

viṣayavatī vā pravṛttir utpannā manasaḥ sthiti nibandhanī

36

Or when the heart is set on being luminescent and free from sorrow.

viśokā vā jyotiṣmatī

23

I

Focussed Tranquillity

Part 3 of 3

37

Or by thoughts which are free from objects of desire.

vīta rāga viṣayaṁ vā cittaṁ

38

Or by insights gained by consideration of the sleep and dream states.

svapna nidrā j˝ānā 'laṁbanaṁ vā

39

Or through meditative focus on a preferred object.

yathā 'bhimata dhyānād vā

40

Mastery extends from the grossest to the subtlest levels.

paramā 'ṇu parama mahattvānto 'sya vaśīkāraḥ

24

I

41

When the mental-emotional perturbations have died away, it is like a pristine jewel in which the coinciding of experiencer/experiencing/experience [the pure experiencing] shines.

kṣīṇa vṛtter abhijātasye 'va maṇer gṛhītṛ grahaṇa grāhyeṣu tatsthatad a˝janatā samāpattiḥ

42

In that coinciding [the pure experiencing], it is realised that the meaning of a word is nothing more than thinking based on insubstantial notions.

tatra śabdā 'rtha j˝āna vikalpaiḥ saṁkīrṇā savitarkā samāpattiḥ

25

I

43

There is complete freedom from  (the perturbations of) memory when it is realised that it is essentially void and in this way things are allowed to shine simply as they are, without cogitation.

smṛti pariśuddhau svarūpa śūnye 'vā 'rthamātra nirbhāsā nirvitarkā

26

I

44

In this way, whether there is discursive enquiry or direct enquiry all objects can be understood on the subtlest level.

etayai 'va savicārā nirvicārā ca sūkṣma viṣayā vyākhyātā

45

An object can be comprehended on this subtle level without any cognitive discrimination.

sūkṣma viṣayatvaṁ cā 'liṅga paryavasānaṁ

46

Comprehending exactly in this way is the seed of samadhi.

tā eva sabījaḥ samādhiḥ

27

I

47

It is direct enquiry which illumines the tranquillity of the true Self.

nirvicāra vaiśāradye 'dhyātma prasādaḥ

48

Such insight brings the deepest harmony.

ṛtaṁbharā tatra praj˝ā

49

It reveals the fundamental order of things and as such is quite distinct from the usual understanding and reasoning.

śrutā 'numāna praj˝ā 'bhyām anya viṣayā viśeṣā 'rthatvāt

50

The inclination (to practise direct enquiry) dissolves the grip of all other inclinations.

tajjaḥ saṁskāro 'nya saṁskāra pratibandhī

51

Hand in hand with the dissolution of all inclinations is causeless samadhi.

tasyā 'pi nirodhe sarva nirodhān nirbījaḥ samādhiḥ

28

II

Sadhana

1

The practice of yoga consists of non-indulgence, self-enquiry and directing the attention to the Supreme Identity. 

tapaḥ svādhyāye 'śvara praṇidhānāni kriyā yogaḥ

29

II

2

And becoming more and more established in samadhi as the painful afflictions are more and more thinned out.

samādhi bhāvanārthaḥ kleśa tanū karaṇārthaś ca

30

II

The Poisons

Part 1 of 6

3

These painful afflictions come about through ignorance, a sense of separate selfhood and attachment and aversion which reinforce this sense of separate selfhood.

avidyā 'smitā rāga dveṣā 'bhiniveśāḥ kleśāḥ

4

Ignorance gives rise to the other afflictions.  These afflictions when active, can be interrupted, disempowered and put to sleep.

avidyā kṣetram uttareṣāṁ prasupta tanu vicchinno 'dārāṇaṁ

31

II

The Poisons

Part 2 of 6

5

Ignorance is cognising the impermanent as permanent, taking what is painful as pleasant, and the not-self as the self. 

anityā 'śuci duḥkhā 'nātmasu nitya śuci sukhā 'tma khyātir avidyā

32

II

The Poisons

Part 3 of 6

 

5 (continued)

[The Nature of the World ]

33

II

The Poisons

Part 4 of 6

6

The affliction of separate selfhood is when experiencing is mistakenly attributed to an experiencer.

dṛg darśana-śaktyor ekātmatevā 'smitā

7

Attachment is reinforced by that which is pleasant.

sukhā 'nuśayī rāgaḥ

8

Aversion is reinforced by that which is painful.

duḥkhā 'nuśayī dveṣaḥ

9

The sense of separate selfhood is thus reinforced by its own momentum even in the wise.

svarasavāhī viduṣo 'pi tathā 'rūḍho 'bhiniveśaḥ

10

These [afflictions] can be bypassed and their momentum undermined on the subtle level [of yoga practice].

te pratiprasava heyāḥ sūkṣmāḥ

34

II

The Poisons

Part 5 of 6

11

Meditative focus bypasses these vortices.

dhyāna heyās tad vṛttayaḥ

35

II

The Poisons

Part 6 of 6

12

The afflictions feed our underlying drives through circumstance and personal psychology, creating our experience.

kleśa mūlaḥ karmā 'śayo dṛṣṭā 'dṛṣṭa janma vedanīyaḥ

13

As long as this continues its consequences are experiences of a certain quality and duration.

sati mūle tad vipāko jāty āyur bhogāḥ

14

These can be delightful or distressing depending on the graciousness or otherwise of our behaviour.

te hlāda paritāpa phalāḥ puṇyā 'puṇya hetutvāt

15

Therefore the astute individual does not look for comfort in the struggles inherent in physical existence but faces up to the uncomfortable challenge of personal transformation.

pariṇāma tāpa saṁskāra duḥkhair guṇa vṛtti virodhāc ca duḥkham eva sarvaṁ vivekinaḥ

36

II

16

Future suffering can be discarded.

heyaṁ duḥkham anāgataṁ

17

What needs to be discarded is the associating of seeing (perception) with an object that is being seen (perceived).

draṣṭṛ dṛśyayoḥ saṁyogo heya hetuḥ

37

II

Deconstructing

Perception

18

The objects of perception are characterised by visibility, motion [capturing the attention] and stillness [not capturing the attention] and are in the realm of the senses and the elements.  The choice is experience or liberation.

prakāśa kriyā sthiti śīlaṁ bhūte 'ndriyātmakaṁ bhogā 'pavargārthaṁ dṛśyaṁ

19

Physical reality [cognition] consists of nothing more than differentiating within what cannot be differentiated and particularising from the general.

viśeṣā 'viśeṣa liṅgamātrā 'liṅgāni guṇaparvāṇi

20

The Seer [Experiencer] is nothing more than pure Seeing [Experiencing] even though notions are entertained.

draṣṭā dṛśimātraḥ śuddho 'pi pratyayā 'nupaśyaḥ

21

That realisation is truly at the heart of what is seen.

tad artha eva dṛśyasyā 'tmā

38

II

Consciousness & Ignorance

22

The goal is realised (or not) against the ebb and flow [of the conviction] in consensus reality.

kṛtārthaṁ prati naṣṭaṁ apy anaṣṭaṁ tad anya sādhāraṇatvāt

23

The reason [for this conviction] is the identification of the yogiĺs own power [of awareness] with the form of what is perceived.

sva svāmi śaktyoḥ svarūpopalabdhi hetuḥ saṁyogaḥ

24

This is the basis of ignorance.

tasya hetur avidyā

25

Without ignorance there is no identification and its cessation allows unqualified insight.

tad abhāvāt saṁyogā 'bhāvo hānaṁ tad dṛśeḥ kaivalyaṁ

26

By appropriate means, constantly dissociate from knowledge based on discrimination.

viveka khyātir aviplavā hāno 'pāyaḥ

39

II

Wisdom

26 (cont).

 

 

27

This wisdom is underpinned by a sevenfold foundation.

tasya saptadhā prānta bhūmiḥ praj˝ā

28

Practising the limbs of yoga diminishes limited understanding which is revealed in the light of insight to be the cognitive process.

yogāṅgānuṣṭhānād aśuddhi kṣaye j˝āna dīptirā viveka khyāteḥ

40

II

The Eight Limbs of Yoga - Preamble

29

 

 

41

II

The Eight Limbs of Yoga

29

The eight limbs of yoga are non-self-indulgence, appropriate attitudes, awareness of body and breath, withdrawal of the attention from objects, awareness of the attention, resting in this awareness and becoming established in it [samadhi].

yama niyamā 'sana prāṇāyāma pratyāhāra dhāraṇā dhyāna samādhayo'ṣṭāv aṅgāni

42

II

1.  Avoiding self-indulgence.

30

Not being self-indulgent means not inflicting yourself on others, being honest, not appropriating, equanimity with regards to sex, and freedom from grasping.

ahiṁsā satyā 'steya brahmacaryā 'parigrahā yamāḥ

31

This is the chief intention at all levels [of insight] regardless of status, place, time and circumstance.

jāti deśa kāla samayā 'navacchinnāḥ sārva bhaumā mahā vrataṁ

43

II

1a.  Ahimsa

35

Being grounded in non-violence goes together with the abandonment of hostile tendencies.

ahiṁsā pratiṣṭhāyāṁ tat saṁnidhau vaira tyāgaḥ

1b. Satya

36

Being grounded in truth is the basis for successful outcomes.

satya pratiṣṭhāyāṁ kriyā phalā 'śrayatvaṁ

1c. Asteya

37

Having no need to appropriate is the manifestation of true wealth.

asteya pratiṣṭhāyāṁ sarva ratno 'pasthānaṁ

44

II

1d. Brahmacarya

38

Being sexually contented frees up energy.

brahmacarya pratiṣṭhāyāṁ vīrya lābhaḥ

1e. Aparigraha

39

Having no inclination to acquire anything there is the perfect relationship with whatever arises.

aparigrahasthairye janma kathantā saṁbodhaḥ

45

II

2. Appropriate Attitudes (Observances)

32

The appropriate attitudes are integrity, contentment, accepting the discomfort [of not being self-indulgent] and self-study in the light of the true Self.

śauca santoṣa tapaḥ svādhyāye 'śvara praṇidhānāni niyamāḥ

46

II

33

Any excuses to the contrary should be dealt with by cultivating the opposite.

vitarka bādhane pratipakṣa bhāvanaṁ

47

II

34

Such excuses and their like whether they are acted on directly or indirectly or approved of to a minimal, medium or excessive degree, are based on greed, anger and delusion, yielding unending painful ignorance; thus their opposite should be cultivated.

vitarkā hiṁsādayaḥ kṛta kāritā 'numoditā lobha krodha moha pūrvakā mṛdu madhyā 'dhimātrā duḥkhā 'j˝ānā 'nanta phalā iti pratipakṣa bhāvanaṁ

40

A pure practice has no truck with anything to the contrary.

śaucāt svā 'ṅga jugupsā parair asaṁsargaḥ

48

II

41

And pure being, gladness, focussed attention, mastery of the senses [culminate in] the ability to realise the Self.

sattva śuddhi saumanasyai 'kāgrye 'ndriya jayā 'tma darśana yogyatvāni ca

49

II

42

With contentment comes unsurpassed joy.

saṁtoṣād anuttamaḥ sukha lābhaḥ

43

Avoiding  self-indulgence, with declining abuse, the body and senses operate optimally.

kāye 'ndriya siddhir aśuddhi kṣayāt tapasaḥ

46

The composure is stable and joyful.

sthira sukham āsanaṁ

44

Self-study brings actualisation of the divine goal.

svādhyāyād iṣṭa devatā saṁprayogaḥ

45

Contemplating the Supreme Identity is the attainment of samadhi.

samādhi siddhir īśvara praṇidhānāt

50

II

The Art of Living
Part 1

(3. Asana)

46

The composure is stable and joyful.

sthira sukham āsanaṁ

47

It harmonises with the endless activity and relaxation of the attention.

prayatna śaithilyā 'nanta samāpattibhyāṁ

51

II

The Art of Living

Part 2

(4. Pranayama)

48

In this way there is freedom from conflicting tendencies.

tato dvandvā 'nabhighātaḥ

49

This being so, pranayama is the cutting-off from the flow of inspiration and expiration.

tasmin sati śvāsa praśvāsayor gati vicchedaḥ prāṇāyāmaḥ

50

It is subtle and can be sucked into and fixed inwardly or outwardly, repeatedly and to a protracted degree, to any place and time.

bāhyā 'bhyantara staṁbhavṛttir deśa kāla saṁkhyābhiḥ paridṛṣṭo dīrgha sūkṣmaḥ

52

II

5. Pratyahara

 

51

The fourth [of the remaining limbs] is the transcendence of external and internal objects.

bāhyā 'bhyantara viṣayā 'kṣepī caturthaḥ

52

And now, that which obscures natural illumination is dissolved.

tataḥ kṣīyate prakāśā 'varaṇaṁ

6. Dharana

53

And the mind has something suitable to focus on.

dhāraṇāsu ca yogyatā manasaḥ

7. Dhyana

54

Withdrawal from the senses is when awareness  disidentifies with its own object and identifies instead with its own essence.

sva viṣayāsaṁprayoge citta svarūpānukāra ive 'ndriyāṇāṁ pratyāhāraḥ

8. Samadhi

55

In this way, the senses are subdued by the [awareness of the] Absolute.

tataḥ paramā vaśyate 'ndriyāṇāṁ

53

 

Miracles

 

[Preamble to Book 3]

 

54

III

Samyama

1

Fixing the attention binds the mind to a single point.

deśa bandhaś cittasya dhāraṇā

2

Meditation is when this condition is sustained.

tatra pratyayai 'katānatā dhyānaṁ

3

Its only purpose is samadhi which is the illumination of awareness independent of its apparent object.

tad evā 'rthamātranirbhāsaṁ svarūpa śūnyam iva samādhiḥ

4

These three [practised] together constitute harmonious integration [samyama].

trayam ekatra saṁyamaḥ

5

Mastery of this allows wisdom to shine.

taj jayāt praj˝ā lokaḥ

6

Progress in this is gradual.

tasya bhūmiṣu viniyogaḥ

55

III

Samyama (continued)

7

These three limbs, in relation to the other limbs are inward.

trayaṁ antaraṅgaṁ pūrvebhyaḥ

8

But they are external in relation to the unconditioned aspect [of samadhi]. 

tad api bahiraṅgaṁ nirbījasya

56

III

Transformation

(parinamah)

9

The change by which control is established and the mood patterns are subjugated consists of the mind identifying with the possibility of control in the instant that it [the possibility] arises.

vyutthāna nirodha saṁskārayor abhibhava prādurbhāvau nirodha kṣaṇa cittānvayo nirodha pariṇāmaḥ

10

The mood patterns can then pass by without causing disturbance.

tasya praśāntavāhitā saṁskārāt

11

The change by which samadhi arises is when the mind is one-pointed rather than caught up in a variety of objects.

sarvārthatai 'kāgratayoḥ kṣayo 'dayau cittasya samādhi pariṇāmaḥ

12

The change by which one-pointedness of mind arises is when there is the repeated turning to a balanced state.

tataḥ punaḥ śāntoditau tulya pratyayau cittasyai 'kāgratā pariṇāmaḥ

13

In this way, changes in cognised reality as it appears and as it is experienced can be understood appropriately.

etena bhūte 'ndriyeṣu dharma lakṣaṇā 'vasthā pariṇāmā vyākhyātāḥ

14

That which underpins the subsequent reality is a manifested ineffable peace.

śānto 'ditā 'vyapadeśya dharmā 'nupātī dharmī

57

III

Transformation & Transition

15

The cause for progressive differentiation [transition] is differentiating changes

kramānyatvaṁ pariṇāmānyatve hetuḥ

58

III

Working with the Past and the Future

16

The appropriate attitude to the past and the future is this three-factored transformation which is harmonious integration [samyama].

pariṇāma traya saṁyamād atītā 'nāgata j˝ānaṁ

59

III

16 (continued)

 

 

60

III

Working with Memory

16 (continued)

 

 

61

III

Working with Words

17

[See also Video 63]

An object, the word for it and associated concept, are muddled and confused with each other.  Harmonious integration brings the appropriate attitude to all levels of language.

śabdā 'rtha pratyayānām itare 'tarā 'dhyāsāt saṁkaras tat pravibhāga saṁyamāt sarva bhūta ruta j˝ānaṁ

23

Being well-disposed and so on is empowering.   

maitryādiṣu balāni

62

III

Drives & Moods

18

Direct observation of the psychological tendencies is the appropriate attitude to what gives rise to present circumstances.

saṁskāra sākṣātkaraṇāt pūrva jāti j˝ānaṁ

19

And to other moods [or mind-sets] that present themselves.

pratyayasya para citta j˝ānaṁ

63

III

17 (continued)

 

 

20

And without the support of these [moods or mind-sets] being loses its objectifying nature.

na ca tat sā 'laṁbanaṁ tasyā 'viṣayībhūtatvāt

64

III

The Power of Here

21

With harmonious integration and when the power of the eye is suspended and there is no longer attachment to its light then perception of physicality disappears.

kāya rūpa saṁyamāt tad grāhya śaktti staṁbhe cakṣuḥ prakāśā 'saṁprayoge 'ntardhānaṁ

21a

In the same way, the disappearance of sounds and so on can be explained.

etena śhabdādi antardhānam uktaṁ

65

III

The Bigness of Here

22

With harmonious integration comes the appropriate attitude to inconsequential actions, actions that we engage with, ominous circumstances and the final end of things.

sopakramaṁ nirupakramaṁ ca karma tat saṁyamād aparānta j˝ānaṁ ariṣṭebhyo vā

66

III

23

Being well-disposed and so on is empowering.   

maitryādiṣu balāni

24

In this empowerment is the strength and other  qualities of an elephant.

baleṣu hasti balādīni

67

III

25

By giving up the inclination to follow the light there is the appropriate attitude to that which is subtly hidden and distant.

pravṛtty āloka nyāsāt sūkṣma vyavahita viprakṛṣṭa j˝ānaṁ

68

III

26

When there is harmonious integration centred around the sun then there is the appropriate attitude towards the world;

bhuvana j˝ānaṁ sūrye saṁyamāt

27

And on the moon, the appropriate attitude to the constellations;

candre tārā vyūha j˝ānaṁ

28

And on the Pole Star, the appropriate attitude to its course;

dhruve tad gati j˝ānaṁ

69

III

29

And on the navel chakra, the appropriate attitude to the constellation of the body;

nābhi cakre kāya vyūha j˝ānaṁ

30

And on the bottom of the throat, the stilling of hunger and thirst;

kaṇṭhakūpe kṣut pipāsā nivṛttiḥ

31

And on the tortoise nadi, stillness;

kūrma nāḍyāṁ sthairyaṁ

70

III

32

And on the light in the head, the vision of the perfected ones;

mūrdha jyotiṣi siddha darśanaṁ

33

Or, on the faculty of direct spiritual insight, everything;

prātibhād vā sarvaṁ

34

And on the heart, understanding of the mind.

hṛdaye citta saṁvit

71

III

Sutras 26-34

 

 

72

III

35

Purity of being is not the same as the pure Self.  Not realising this yields experience rather than the true nature of things.  Harmonious integration centred around itself yields the appropriate attitude towards the Self.

sattva puruṣayor atyantā 'saṁkīrṇayoḥ pratyayā 'viśeṣo bhogaḥ

parārthatvāt svārtha saṁyamāt puruṣa j˝ānaṁ

73

III

36

[See also Video 76]

From this [attitude], illuminating insight into hearing, touching, seeing, tasting and smelling is born.

tataḥ prātibha śrāvaṇa vedanā 'darśā 'svāda vārtā jāyante

37

These attainments, if outwardly, directed are obstacles to samadhi.

te samādhāv upasargā vyutthāne siddhayaḥ

74

III

Falling from Grace

38

When the cause of identification [bondage] is relaxed, there is still a tendency based on feeling and thoughts to enter into further bodily experience.

bandha kāraṇa śaithilyāt pracāra saṁvedanāc ca cittasya para śarīrā 'veśaḥ

75

III

Embracing the Sky

39

When there is mastery of udana then not only is there no contact with water, mud, thorns, etc but there is also movement upward.

udāna jayāj jala paṅka kaṇṭakādiṣv asaṅga utkrāntiś ca

40

Mastery of samana causes radiance.

samāna jayāj jvalanaṁ

76

III

Listening with the Heart

41

When there is harmonious integration centred on the close connection between hearing and space then the divine can be heard.

śrotrā 'kāśayoḥ saṁbandha saṁyamād divyaṁ śrotraṁ

77

III

Free as a Cloud

42

When there is harmonious integration centred on the close connection between the body and space, just as cotton has the characteristic of being light, there is movement through space. 

kāyā 'kāśayoḥ saṁbandha saṁyamāl laghu tūla samāpatteś cā 'kāśa gamanaṁ

78

III

Seeing the Light

43

When there is no thinking in terms of an external world then there is identification with supreme incorporeality and what obscures the light diminishes.

bahir akalpitā vṛttir mahā videhā tataḥ prakāśā 'varaṇa kṣayaḥ

79

III

Feeding the Divine

44

When there is harmonious integration centred on the coarse and subtle both in themselves, how they are connected and their functions, then there is mastery of the elements.

sthūla svarūpa sūkṣmā 'nvayārthavattva saṁyamād bhūta jayaḥ

80

III

The Perfect Body

45

And so we can talk of becoming atomic etc and the manifestation of the perfect body that cannot be broken down.

tato 'ṇimādi prādur bhāvaḥ kāya saṁpat tad dharmā 'nabhighātaś ca

46

Perfection of the body consists of composure, grace, strength and adamantine firmness.

tato 'ṇimādi prādur bhāvaḥ kāya saṁpat tad dharmā 'nabhighātaś ca

81

III

47

When there is harmonious integration centred on the significance of the connection between perception, the object of perception and the experiencer then there is mastery of the senses.

grahaṇa svarūpā 'smitā 'nvayārthavattva saṁyamād indriya jayaḥ

82

III

Richness of Spirit

48

From this, the mind operates instantaneously, free from the senses of perception, and there is mastery over root tendencies.

tato manojavitvaṁ vikaraṇabhāvaḥ pradhāna jayaś ca

83

III

Purity & Purification

49

It is sufficient to see the distinction between purity of being and the pure Self in order to have supremacy over all modes of being and to know all that there is to know.

sattva puruṣā 'nyatā khyātimātrasya sarva bhāvā 'dhiṣṭhātṛtvaṁ sarva j˝ātṛtvaṁ ca

84

III

50

When there is dispassion towards even this then there is liberation with the removal of root hindrances.

tad vairāgyād api doṣa bīja kṣaye kaivalyaṁ

85

III

51

When higher possibilities present themselves then avoid attachment and pride otherwise there is once again undesirable indulgence.

sthāny upanimantraṇe saṅga smayā 'karaṇaṁ punar aniṣṭa prasaṅgāt

52

When there is harmonious integration centred on this passing moment then there is the appropriate attitude to complete awareness.

kṣaṇa tat kramayoḥ saṁyamād vivekajaṁ j˝ānaṁ

86

III

53

From this there is equable understanding regardless of type, characteristic, location or other distinguishing features.

jāti lakṣaṇa deśair anyatā 'navacchedāt tulyayos tataḥ pratipattiḥ

87

III

54

And thus there is the appropriate attitude born of discernment [of what is real] that transcends all objects in all circumstances at all times.

tārakaṁ sarva viṣayaṁ sarvathā viṣayaṁ akramaṁ ce 'ti vivekajaṁ j˝ānaṁ

55

This is liberation when there is no difference (in purity) between being and the Self.

sattva puruṣayoḥ śuddhisāṁye kaivalyaṁ

88

IV

Kaivalya

[Preamble to Book 4]

 

89

IV

The Rock of Liberation

1

Supernormal powers can be a factor of birth, herbs, mantra, tapas or samadhi.

janmau 'ṣadhi mantra tapaḥ samādhijāḥ siddhayaḥ

2

The great flow of life allows for transition to another dimension.

jāty antara pariṇāmaḥ prakṛtyā 'pūrāt

90

 

3

The life-flow is not a cause in itself but like a farmer it can allow this transition to happen by removing the weeds.

nimittaṁ aprayojakaṁ prakṛtīnāṁ varaṇa bhedas tu tataḥ kṣetrikavat

91

IV

4

Mind and its moods arise solely from the sense of individual selfhood.

nirmāṇa cittāny asmitā mātrāt

5

The actions of one mood [mind-set] fuel other different moods.

pravṛtti bhede prayojakaṁ cittaṁ ekam anekeṣāṁ

6

Activity born of meditative focus puts a stop to this.

tatra dhyānajam anāśayaṁ

92

IV

7

Yogic actions are neither black nor white.  Other actions are threefold in nature.

karmā 'śuklā 'kṛṣṇaṁ yoginas trividham itareṣāṁ

93

IV

8

These ripen accordingly into definite behaviour patterns.

tatas tad vipākā 'nuguṇānāṁ evā 'bhivyakttir vāsanānāṁ

9

Regardless of status and circumstance there is a procession of memories and psychological tendencies which constitute the underlying dynamic.

jāti deśa kāla vyavahitānāṁ apy ānantaryaṁ smṛti saṁskārayor eka rūpatvāt

10

And these have no beginning because of the ongoing need for resolution.

tāsāṁ anāditvaṁ cā 'śiṣo nityatvāt

11

Their dissolution means the dissolution of the bedrock of the cycle of cause and effect which they support and hold together.

hetu phalā 'śrayā 'laṁbanaih samgṛhītatvād eṣāmabhāve tad abhāvaḥ

94

IV

Review

2-11

 

 

95

IV

The Past and the Future

12

The past and the future have their own reality which is characterised in different ways.

atītā 'nāgataṁ svarūpato 'sty adhva bhedād dharmāṇāṁ

13

The sense of their reality manifests subtly.

te vyaktta sūksmā guṇātmanaḥ

14

The essence of the nature of transition is in accordance with the principle of non-duality.

pariṇāmai 'katvād vastu tattvaṁ

15

Reality is of the one nature but contrasts within each mood produce schizoid understanding.

vastu sāṁye citta bhedāt tayor vibhakttaḥ panthāḥ

96

IV

15 (continued)

 

 

16

And reality cannot be dependent on a particular state of mind [mood] otherwise it would be unknowable.

na cai 'ka cittatantraṁ vastu tad apramāṇakaṁ tadā kiṁ syāt

17

There is a reality that can be known or not known through the filtered expectations of the mind.

tad uparāgā 'pekṣitvāc cittasya vastu j˝ātā 'j˝ātaṁ

97

IV

18

The immutability of the Self is master of the perturbations which are constantly recognised by it

sadā j˝ātāś citta vṛttayas tat prabhoḥ puruṣasyā 'pariṇāmitvāt

19

It cannot illumine itself as a knowable object. 

na tat svābhāsaṁ dṛśyatvāt

98

IV

20

And both cannot be comprehended simultaneously. 

ekasamaye co 'bhayā 'navadhāraṇaṁ

21

If one mind-set [mood] could bring another into its purview then there would be infinite regression because the mind would be working on the mind.  There would be confusion in self-remembering.

cittā 'ntara dṛśye buddhi buddher atiprasaṅgaḥ smṛti saṁkaraś ca

99

IV

22

When the unchanging mind assumes a particular shape then the cognising faculty becomes apparent. 

citer apratisaṁkramāyās tad ākārā 'pattau sva buddhi saṁvedanaṁ

23

Consensus reality is when the mind is coloured by the seer and the seen.

draṣṭṛ dṛśyo 'parakttaṁ cittaṁ sarvārthaṁ

100

IV

24

This is driven by the activity of countless latent tendencies [habit patterns] and also a variety of other closely related factors.

tad asaṁkhyeya vāsanābhiś citram api parārthaṁ saṁhatyakāritvāt

25

The one who can distinguish this stops reinforcing a sense of separate identity.

viśeṣa darśina ātmabhāva bhāvanā vinivṛttiḥ

26

Such discrimination moves the centre of gravity towards kaivalya.

tadā vivekaniṁnaṁ kaivalya prāgbhāraṁ cittaṁ

101

IV

27

When there are breaks in this, notions based on psychological disposition can still dominate.

tac chidreṣu pratyayā 'ntarāṇi saṁskārebhyaḥ

28

These can be bypassed as explained in relation to the afflictions.

hānam eṣāṁ kleśavad ukttaṁ

102

IV

The Dharma-Cloud of Samadhi

29

When this discrimination [between awareness & the mind, yogic vision & consensus reality] is fully realised and there is no trace of self-indulgence regardless of circumstances, then this is the dharma-cloud of samadhi.

prasaṁkhyāne 'py akusīdasya sarvathā viveka khyāter dharma meghaḥ samādhiḥ

30

And so, activity which fuels the afflictions is terminated.

tataḥ kleśa karma nivṛttiḥ

103

IV

31

Then all obscuring impurities are removed and what is cognisable is seen as miniscule in the light of the infinite nature of pure knowing.

tadā sarvā 'varaṇa malāpetasya j˝ānasyā 'nantyāj j˝eyam alpaṁ

104

IV

32

Conventional reality has served its purpose and its variety of changes dries up.

tataḥ kṛtārthānāṁ pariṇāmakrama samāptir guṇānāṁ

105

IV

33

The succession of moments which constitutes change is finally entirely comprehensible.

kṣaṇa pratiyogī pariṇāmā 'parānta nirgrāhyaḥ kramaḥ

34

The Self has no investment in conventional reality which proceeds accordingly.  Kaivalya is established in its own identity.  It is the power of awareness. That is all.

puruṣārtha śūnyānāṁ guṇānāṁ prati prasavaḥ kaivalyaṁ svarūpa pratiṣṭhā vā citiśakttir iti

 

The above is available in pdf format by clicking here.

The following sources were referred to in preparation of this translation and I am indebted to them :
(I found the first three to be closest in spirit to what is presented here.)

Kofi Busia

http://www.rainbowbody.net/HeartMind/ystoc.htm - Sahaj Yogi (Shakti Das)

Swami Venkatesananda ľ Enlightened Living

Georg Feuerstein ľ The Yoga-Sutra of Patanjali ISBN 978-089281262-2
BKS Iyengar Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali ISBN 1-85538-225-3
Patanjaliĺs Yoga Sutra (Penguin Classics) Shyam Ranganathan ISBN 978-0-143-10219-9

 

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